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According To Betty Neuman’s Health-illness Continuum Approach. A Person’s Condition Of Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, Social, Developmental, And Spiritual Well-being Is Maintained Through Adapting To Changes In Their Internal And External Surroundings, Which Is How Their Health, Which Is A Dynamic State, Develops Over Time (Fig. 1.1).
As Compared To The Person’s Pre-existing Conditions, Illness Is A Process In Which A Person’s Functionality Is Reduced And Hindered In One Or More Dimensions.
It May Be More Helpful To Think Of Health And Disease As A Point On A Scale Or Continuum Rather Than As An Absolute Condition Since They Are Relative Attributes That Occur In Varied Degrees.
On The Spectrum, Extreme Health And Severe Disease (Premature Death) Are At Opposing Extremes.
The Degree Of Client Wellbeing That Occurs At Any One Moment, According To Neuman (1990), “Ranges From An Ideal Wellness State, With The Available Energy At Its Maximum, To Death, Which Represents Complete Energy Depletion.”
Wherever Along The Health-illness Continuum, A Nurse May Identify The State Of Health Of A Client.
Risk Factors Are Key Components Of The Health-illness Continuum Paradigm Since They Help Determine One’s State Of Health. Genetic And Physiological Elements Including Age, Lifestyle, And Environment Are Risk Factors. Some Risk Factors Are More Prevalent Than Others As A Person Advances Through The Developmental Phases.
The Clients’ Attitudes Towards Health, Values, And Assessments Of Their Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, Social, Developmental, And Spiritual Well-being All Influence How They Perceive Their Degree Of Health.
When Utilised To Compare A Client’s Current Degree Of Health With Their Own Prior Level Of Health, The Health Disease Continuum Is Most Successful.
Health Is Defined As “A Condition Of Whole Physical, Mental, And Social Well-being, And Not Only The Lack Of Illness Or Disease” (Who 1947). Several Other Aspects Of Health Must Be Taken Into Account. Individuals Define Health As A State Of Being Based On Their Own Values, Personalities, And Lifestyles. Each Has An Own Concept Of Health.
Using Goal-directed Behaviour, Competent Self-care, And Fulfilling Relationships With Others, Pender, Murdaugh, And Parsons (2002) Define Health As The Realisation Of Inherent And Acquired Human Potential While Making Adjustments As Necessary To Maintain Structural Integrity And Harmony With The Environment.
Individuals’ Perspectives On Health Might Differ Based On Their Ages, Genders, Races, And Cultures. Not All Individuals Who Are Disease-free Are Equally Healthy. As We Place More Emphasis On Health At The Family And Community Levels, Perspectives On Health Have Expanded To Include Mental, Social, And Spiritual Well-being.
The Nurse Must Learn And Use Knowledge About The Clients’ Concepts Of Health In Order To Assist Clients In Identifying And Achieving Their Health Goals. According To Pender, “For Many Individuals, Circumstances Of Living Are What Determine Health Rather Than Pathological Disorders.” Before An Illness Is Obvious, Life Circumstances May Have Positive Or Negative Effects On Health. Living Conditions May Include Socioeconomic Factors Including Environment, Dietary Practises, And Lifestyle Decisions, As Well As A Wide Range Of Physiological And Psychological Factors.
Health And Sickness Must Be Defined In Terms Of The Person; Things Once Thought To Be Illness Might Be Included In Health. For Instance, An Epileptic Who Has Mastered Medication-assisted Seizure Control And Is Able To Function Both At Home And At Work May No Longer See Themselves As Sick. In Order To Individualise Nursing Care And Increase The Significance Of The Client’s Future Health Status, Nurses’ Attitudes About Health And Illness Should Take Into Account The Whole Person As Well As The Environment In Which The Person Lives.
A Sound Mind, A Sound Body, A Sound Family, And A Sound Environment Are All Necessary For Health, According To The Layperson.
Health Is The Lack Of Illness. Being At Peace With Oneself, Society, The Divine, And The Cosmos.
The Purpose Of Nursing As A Profession Is To Promote Health, Prevent Disease, And Provide Patients With Holistic Nursing Care That Takes Into Account Their Physical, Social, And Spiritual Needs.
The World Health Organization (Who) Stated The Widely Accepted Definition Of Health In 1948.
Not Only The Absence Of Disease Or Infirmity, Health Is A State Of Whole Physical, Mental, And Social Well-being.
Being Healthy Means Feeling Well And Making The Most Of All Of Our Abilities.
Being Free From Physical Illness Or Pain Is An Important Aspect Of Being In Good Physical, Mental, And Spiritual Health.
Health Is The State In Which The Body And Mind Are In Which Their Functions Are Properly Carried Out.
Health Is The Level Of Moral, Mental, And Physical Well-being That Allows A Person To Handle Any Life Crisis With Almost Divine Grace And Facility.
In Its Broadest Sense, Health Is A Dynamic State Whereby A Person Adjusts To Changes In Their Internal And External Environment In Order To Maintain A State Of Wellbeing.
Many Internal Environmental Factors, Such As Psychological Variables, Intellectual And Spiritual Dimensions, And Disease Processes, Have An Impact On Health.
Physical Environment, Social Relationships, And Economic Variables Are Examples Of External Environment Factors That May Have An Impact On A Person’s Health.
A Model Is A Theoretical Approach To Comprehending A Notion Or Concept. Since Health And Illness Are Complex Concepts, Models Are Used To Understand The Relationships Between These Concepts And Clients’ Attitudes Towards Health And Healthy Behaviours. Models Represent Many Approaches To Dealing With Complex Issues.
People’s Ideas, Convictions, And Attitudes Towards Health And Illness Are Referred To As Health Beliefs. They Could Be Based On False Information Or Inaccurate Facts, Common Sense Or Urban Legends, Or Unrealistic Expectations Or Reality. Health Beliefs Can Have A Good Or Bad Impact On A Client’s Level Of Health Since They Often Influence Health Behavior. Actions Pertaining To Keeping, Achieving, Or Regaining Good Health And Avoiding Disease Are Known As Positive Health Behaviors. Immunization, Healthy Sleep Habits, Enough Exercise, And Nutrition Are Examples Of Typical Positive Health Behaviours. Negative Health Behaviours Include Actions That Are Either Really Harmful To Health Or Have The Potential To Be, Such As Smoking, Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol, Eating Poorly, And Refusing To Take Prescribed Medications.
To Comprehend Clients’ Attitudes And Values Towards Health And Nursing Models, Nurses Have Developed The Following Health Models. Provide Nurses The Ability To Comprehend And Predict The Health Behaviour Of Their Patients, Including How They Use Medical Services And Adhere To Prescribed Therapy.
Physical Dimension: Being In Good Physical Health Indicates That The Body Is Operating Well. In Terms Of Biology, It Conceptualises Health As A Condition In Which Each Cell And Organ Is Operating At Its Peak Potential And In Perfect Symphony With The Rest Of The Body. It Takes Into Account Racial Makeup, Age, Developmental Stage, And Sex. These Are Components Of People, Which Have A Big Impact On Their Health State And Health Behaviours.
Mental/intellectual Dimension: According To Definitions Of Mental Health, It Is A Condition Of Harmony Between The Self And The Environment, As Well As Between The Self And Other People.
The Definition Of Sociocultural Dimension Is The Quality And Quantity Of A Person’s Interpersonal Relationships As Well As Their Level Of Community Participation. The Degree Of Social Skills One Has, Social Functioning, And The Capacity To Establish Oneself As A Member Of A Wider Community Are All Part Of The Social Component Of Health. It Covers A Person’s Socioeconomic Position, Amount Of Education, Way Of Life, Family, And Culture. All Of These Have An Impact On People’s Health And Sickness.
Environmental Factor: It Has A Wide Range Of Effects On Health And Disease. Environmental Factors That Contribute To Sickness Include Housing, Sanitization, Climate, And Food, Water, And Air Pollution.
It Expresses How The Mind And Body Interact To Affect How The Body Functions And How The Body Reacts To The Mind. In Addition To These Factors, Emotions Have An Impact On One’s Health. Long-term Stress Has An Impact On The Body’s Systems. Relaxation And Calm Acceptance May Really Alter How The Body Reacts To Disease. In The Past, The Qualities Of Mental And Emotional Health Were Seen As Being The Same, However Mental Health May Be Thought Of As Knowing Or Cognition, Whilst Emotional Health Is Related To Feeling.
Spiritual Dimension: A Person’s Behaviour In Both Good Health And Bad Health Is Greatly Influenced By Their Spiritual And Religious Beliefs And Ideals. The Nurse Must Respect These Principles And Comprehend How Crucial They Are To The Patient’s Faith.
As A Dimension, Practical Skills: Work Often Contributes To The Promotion Of Both Physical And Mental Health When It Is Properly Tailored To Human Objectives, Capabilities, And Limits. Workplace Goal- And Self-realization-achievement Is A Source Of Fulfilment And Higher Self-esteem.
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