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One Of The Issues That Defines Our Time Is Climate Change. Based On Several Lines Of Evidence, It Is Now Clearer Than Ever That People Are Altering Earth’s Climate. Along With Sea Level Rise, A Sharp Loss In Arctic Sea Ice, And Other Climate-related Changes, The Atmosphere And Seas Have Warmed. The Effects Of Climate Change On People And The Environment Are Becoming More Obvious. Unprecedented Heat Waves, Wildfires, And Floods Have Caused Billions In Losses. In Reaction To Shifting Temperatures And Precipitation Patterns, Habitats Are Altering Rapidly.
The Original Climate Change: Evidence And Causes Was Published In 2014 By The Royal Society And The Us National Academy Of Sciences, Both Of Which Have Similar Purposes To Encourage The Use Of Research To Benefit Society And To Inform Important Policy Discussions. It Was Authored And Evaluated By A Team Of Top Climate Experts From The Us And The Uk. The Most Current Climate Data And Scientific Assessments Have Been Included In This Revised Version, Which Was Created By The Same Author Team. These Updates Strengthen Our Knowledge Of How Climate Change Is Driven By Humans.
The Proof Is Unmistakable. But Not All Of The Details Are Ever Fully Resolved Or Definite Because Of The Nature Of Science. Additionally, Not All Relevant Queries Have Been Addressed Yet. Around The Globe, More And More Scientific Data Are Being Acquired. New Insights Have Surfaced And Certain Things Have Grown More Evident. For Instance, The Period Of Gradual Warming That Began In The 2000s And Early 2010s Has Come To An End With A Sharp Increase In Temperature Between 2014 And 2015. The Area Of The Antarctic Sea Ice, Which Had Been Growing, Started To Decrease In 2014 And Continued To Shrink Until It Reached A Record Low In 2017. The Discussions Of The Issues Covered In This Pamphlet Have Been Braided With These And Other Current Insights.
Demands For Action Are Becoming More Urgent. The Top Five Global Hazards That Are Most Likely To Occur During The Next 10 Years, According To The World Economic Forum’s 2020 Global Hazards Perception Survey, Include Climate Change And Associated Environmental Challenges. The World Community Still Has To Demonstrate More Ambition In Terms Of Tackling Climate Change Via Mitigation, Adaptation, And Other Means.
Making Choices On How To Lessen The Severity Of Climate Change And How To Adapt To Its Effects Requires Society To Have Access To Scientific Knowledge. For Anyone Who Need Reliable Information About The Status Of Climate Change Science, Including Decision-makers, Policy-makers, Educators, And Others, This Brochure Is A Crucial Resource.
We Are Appreciative That Six Years Ago, The National Academy Of Sciences And The Royal Society Collaborated To Create A High-level Review Of Climate Change Research Under The Direction Of Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone, Past President Of The National Academy Of Sciences, And Sir Paul Nurse, Former President Of The Royal Society. We Are Glad To Provide An Update To This Important Reference Thanks To The Generosity Of The Cicerone Family As The Current Presidents Of These Organisations.
President Lincoln Issued A Congressional Charter In 1863 That Created The National Academy Of Sciences (Nas) To Counsel The United States On Scientific And Technological Matters. Numerous Studies On The Causes Of And Possible Solutions To Climate Change Have Been Published By The National Research Council, The Operative Arm Of The National Academies Of Sciences And Engineering. On Nationalacademies.org/climate, You May Find Materials From The National Research Council On Climate Change.
A Self-governing Fellowship Of Many Of The Most Eminent Scientists In The World, The Royal Society. All Branches Of Science, Engineering, And Medicine Are Represented Among Its Members. In The Uk, It Is The National Academy Of Sciences. The Main Goal Of The Society, As Stated In Its Founding Charters From The 1660s, Is To Acknowledge, Support, And Promote Scientific Achievement As Well As To Promote The Advancement And Application Of Science For The Benefit Of Mankind. You May Find More Details About The Society’s Efforts To Combat Climate Change At
The Heat (Infrared Radiation) Released From The Earth’s Surface Is Absorbed By Greenhouse Gases Like Carbon Dioxide (Co2). The Earth Warms When These Gas Concentrations In The Atmosphere Rise Because They Trap More Heat. Since The Beginning Of The Industrial Revolution, Human Activities—particularly The Combustion Of Fossil Fuels—have Boosted Atmospheric Co2 Concentrations By More Than 40%, With More Than Half Of That Increase Happening Since 1970. The Average Surface Temperature Has Risen By Around 1 °c (1.8 °f) Since 1900. In Addition To Many Other Related Climatic Consequences, This Has Been Accompanied By Ocean Warming, An Increase In Sea Level, A Sharp Reduction In Arctic Sea Ice, Broad Increases In Heatwave Frequency And Severity. A Large Portion Of This Warming Has Taken Place In The Previous Five Decades.
In-depth Analysis Have Shown That The Warming Throughout This Time Is Mostly The Consequence Of Rising Co2 And Other Greenhouse Gas Concentrations. The Continued Production Of These Gases Will Result In Increased Climate Change, Which Will Significantly Raise The Global Average Surface Temperature And Modify Regional Climate In Significant Ways. Numerous Variables Will Affect The Size And Timing Of These Fluctuations, And Warming Will Continue To Slow Down And Speed Up For Ten Years Or More At A Time. However, The Overall Quantity Of Co2 And Other Greenhouse Gases Released As A Consequence Of Human Activity Will Be The Dominant Factor In Long-term Climate Change Over A Number Of Decades.
Yes. Over Half Of The Rise In Earth’s Average Surface Air Temperature Since 1900 Has Occurred During The Mid-1970s [figure 1a], An Increase Of Around 1 °c (1.8 °f). Together, A Variety Of Additional Observations (Such As Decreased Arctic Sea Ice Extent And Increased Ocean Heat Content) And Cues From Nature (Such As Poleward Shifts Of Temperature-sensitive Species Of Fish, Mammals, Insects, Etc.) Offer Unmistakable Proof Of Global Warming.
The Most Convincing Evidence Of Surface Warming Comes From Widely Used Thermometer Records, Some Of Which Date As Far Back As The Late 19th Century. Thousands Of Stations Throughout The Land And Ocean Surface Are Being Used To Measure Temperatures. Placing Contemporary Temperature Changes In The Perspective Of The Past Is Made Easier By Indirect Estimates Of Temperature Change From Sources Like Tree Rings And Ice Cores. The Most Recent Decade, 2010–2019, Is The Hottest Decade In The Instrumental Record So Far (Since 1850), And 1989–2019 Was Likely The Warmest 30-year Period In More Than 800 Years In Terms Of The Average Surface Temperature Of Earth.
A More Complete Picture Of Global Warming Is Provided By A Broad Variety Of Different Observations. For Instance, The Northern Hemisphere’s Snow And Ice Cover Is Thinning, The Greenland Ice Sheet Is Receding, And The Sea Level Is Increasing [figure 1b]. The Lower Atmosphere And The Top Ocean Layers Have Also Warmed. These Observations Are Made Using Various Land-, Ocean-, And Space-based Monitoring Systems, Adding To The Certainty That The Earth’s Climate Is Really Warming On A Large Scale.
Fossil Fuels, Which Include Coal, Oil, And Gas, Are By Far The Biggest Cause Of Climate Change, Contributing More Than 75% Of All Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Over 90% Of All Carbon Dioxide Emissions.
The Heat From The Sun Gets Trapped On Earth As A Result Of Greenhouse Gas Production. Global Warming And Climate Change Result From This. The Rate Of Global Warming Is Presently Higher Than It Has Ever Been. Weather Patterns Are Shifting As A Result Of Warming Temperatures, Which Is Also Upsetting The Natural Order. This Puts Both Ourselves And All Other Kinds Of Life On Earth In Grave Danger.
It Is Well Recognised That The Earth’s Climate Has The Capacity To Influence The Course Of Human History. It Has The Power To Change The Planet’s Fundamental Biological, Cultural, And Geographic Components. But During The Last Century, It Has Become Clear That Even Human Activity May Significantly Influence The Climate. Climate Change Was Caused By A Rise In World Average Surface Temperature Of Around 0.7 Degrees Celsius During The Previous 100 Years.
Due To The Prolonged Mistreatment Over The Last Several Centuries, Our Planet, Earth, Is Now Experiencing Catastrophic Climatic Imbalances. Climate Change Is Expected To Cause An Increase In Global Average Temperature Of 2.5 To 11.5°f During The Next Century. Future Experiments May Reveal How Hazardous These Little Temperature Shifts Are. Several Nations Throughout The Globe Are Plagued By The Problem Of Global Warming. The Problem Is Anticipated To Become Worse As Greenhouse Gas Emissions Continue To Rise.
According To Numerous Academics, The Worldwide Target Of 3.6 Degrees Celsius, Established Approximately Three Years Ago, Looks Too Optimistic Given The Current Rate Of Emission Growth. The Countries That Promised To Alter Their Behaviours And Reduce Their Emissions Are Considered As Having Made Little Efforts To Do So.
“Any Major Shift In The Indicators Of Climate That Lasts For A Long Time Is Referred To Be Climate Change. In Other Words, Large Changes In Temperature, Precipitation, Or Wind Patterns That Last For Many Decades Or More Are Considered A Part Of Climate Change.
There Have Been Some Serious Climatic Consequences Of The Rapid Increase In Global Temperatures. Massive Changes In Rainfall Patterns Have Resulted In Droughts, Flash Floods, Erratic Rain Patterns, Excessive Rainfall, Etc. Our Maritime Resources Are One Of The Most Recent Threats We Confront. Low Lying Areas Are Being Submerged As A Result Of Increasing Water Levels. The Melting Glaciers Are A Result Of Rising Temperatures, Which Also Causes Sea Levels, Particularly At The Poles, To Rise. Additionally, This Poses A Danger To The Habitat Of A Number Of Animals That Live In Colder Climates, Such As Polar Bears.
We Have All Seen That Over The Last Several Decades, Floods, Droughts, Excessive Rainfall, And Erratic Rainfall Have All Become More Common. These Are Unmistakably The Results Of Climate Change. While Some Areas Have Heavy Rainfall That Causes Floods, Other Areas Experience Drought.
Low-lying Places Are Especially At Risk Because Sea Level Rise Has The Potential To Uproot Tens Of Millions Of People. Sea Levels Increase As The Globe Warms Up, Glaciers Melt From The Effects Of Global Warming, And More Water Is Dumped Into The Seas. 100 Million People Reside Within 3 Feet Of Mean Sea Level In The United States Alone. Small Island Nations Like The Maldives Have Residents Who Are Already Seeking For Other Places To Live.
Some Bird Species Have Been Driven To Extinction By Climate Change And Shifting Vegetation Patterns, While Others Have Moved To New Habitats. By 2050, One-fourth Of Earth’s Species Might Go Extinct, According To Researchers. The Polar Bear Was Added To The List Of Creatures That Could Become Extinct Due To Sea Level Rise In The Year 2008.
By The End Of The Century, The Temperature Of The Whole Planet Might Climb By 3 To 10 Degrees Fahrenheit As A Result Of An Increase In Atmospheric Gases Caused By Automobiles And Industry. The Number Of Fatalities Brought On By Hot And Dry Weather Has Increased As Temperatures Have Risen. The Average Temperature Of The Planet Increased By 1 Degree Fahrenheit Throughout The 20th Century, Which Is Alarming In And Of Itself. According To Research, Temperatures May Be Lowered By 0.5 Degrees Celsius By 2050.
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